This vegetation plain contains plenty of species influenced by man: the landscape is mainly dominated by citrus groves, vineyards, olive groves, almond groves, pistachio groves and fruit trees. This area also hosts numerous, important natural species, based on their distance from the sea, substrate layers, altitude and slope orientation. Euphorbia Dendrides (which represents a vegetation association characterised by colours which are typical of the Mediterranean marquis), Evergreen Holm Oak (Quercus Ilex), the only species of evergreen oak on Etna. Etna Broom (Genista Aetnensis), Black hornbeam (Ostria Carpinifolia), Laurel (Laurus Nobilis), Southern Nettle Tree (Celtis Australis), Oriental Hackberry (Celtis Tournefortii), Terebinth (Pistacia Terebinthus), a tall bushy species with tangled reddish foliage, Spurge (Euphorbia Carcarias), Turkey Oak (Quercus Virgiliana, Quercus Congesta and Quercus Cerris) form part of the deciduous oaks distributed around Mount Etna.
Mount Etna's volcanological evolution
- Mount Etna's history
- The beginning, the tholeiitic period
- Growth, the alkaline period
- The modern period and present day
- Origin of the valley "Valle del Bove"